baby newbornThe development of a child’s brain in early pregnancy may be impaired by low folate (Folic Acid) levels in the mother

And may lead to behavioral problems such as hyperactivity and inattention, says a new study.

Low folate levels in early pregnancy were associated with increased rates of childhood hyperactivity and peer problems, according to a study with 100 mothers and their children followed for almost nine years.

Scientists from the University of Southampton and University College London’s Institute of Child Health propose that the low folate levels impair the development of the brain in the fetus, and early pregnancy is a critical time for brain development.

“To our knowledge, this is the first study in humans to provide evidence for associations of maternal folate with behavioral outcomes in the offspring, and it is the first study to demonstrate a putative pathway via fetal head growth,” wrote the researchers in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.

B Vitamins for Baby Benefits

An overwhelming body of evidence links folate deficiency in early pregnancy to increased risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) – most commonly spina bifida and anencephaly – in infants. Most NTDs occur within the first 22 to 28 days of pregnancy, when the mother-to-be is not aware she is even pregnant.

Folic acid supplements after this time are too late to prevent neural tube defects and therefore fail to benefit women with unplanned pregnancies – more than half of all pregnancies in the US.

This connection led to the 1998 introduction of public health measures in the US and Canada, where all grain products are fortified with folic acid – the bioavailable form of folate.

Preliminary evidence indicates that the measure is having an effect with a reported 15 to 50 per cent reduction in NTD incidence. A total of 51 countries now have some degree of mandatory fortification of flour with folic acid.

Study Details

The researchers recruited 100 mothers in early pregnancy and took blood samples to measure folate levels, and the followed them for an average of 8.75 years. The mothers reported on their children’s behavior using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.

The results showed that low maternal levels of folate were associated with both higher childhood hyperactivity and peer problems scores.

“Although the associations are small and residual confounding is possible, our data provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that lower folate status in early pregnancy might impair foetal brain development and affect hyperactivity / inattention and peer problems in childhood,” wrote the researchers.

Dutch researchers reported in the British Journal of Nutrition in September 2009 that the children of mothers who took folic acid supplements during pregnancy were better at internalizing and externalizing problems, compared to the children of mothers who did not take supplements.

Source: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
May 2010, Volume 51, Issue 5, Pages: 594-602
“Lower maternal folate status in early pregnancy is associated with childhood hyperactivity and peer problems in offspring”

 

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